Plastic surgery is a surgery especially involving the improvement, reconstruction, or enhancement of the human body. It can be classified into mainly two categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery comprises microsurgery, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery, and the treatment of burn scars. On other hand, reconstructive surgery intends to reconstruct a piece of the body or enhance its functioning, cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery strives at enhancing the impression of it. Both of these procedures are very popular in the world.

The phrase "plastic" in plastic surgery implies 'reshaping' and this comes from the Greek language which means "the art of modelling" of pliable flesh. The surgical explanation of "plastic" first came into existence in 1839, going in advance of the contemporary "engineering material made from petroleum" understanding by 70 years.

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The father of modern plastic surgery is commonly supposed to have been Sir Harold Gillies.

Plastic surgery is a vast arena, and maybe further divided into groups. In the United States of America, plastic surgeons are committees authorized by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Subcategories of plastic surgery may have the following:

Aesthetic surgery

Aesthetic surgery is a prominent element of plastic surgery which comprises facial and body aesthetic surgery. Plastic surgeons manipulate cosmetic surgical regulations in all reconstructive surgical protocols as well as separated operations to enhance all-around appearance.

Burn surgery

Burn surgery generally holds a place in two stages. Acute burn surgery is the treatment instantly followed by a burn. Reconstructive burn surgery is followed after the burn scars have been healed.

Craniofacial surgery

Craniofacial surgery is categorised into pediatric and adult craniofacial surgery. Pediatric craniofacial surgery primarily focuses on the treatment of congenital anomalies of the craniofacial skeleton and soft tissues, such as cleft lip and palate, pediatric fractures and craniosynostosis. Adult craniofacial surgery handles mostly fractures and secondary surgeries (such as orbital reconstruction) also with orthognathic surgery. Craniofacial surgery is a crucial portion of all plastic surgery discipline strategies. Further discipline and sub-specialisation are done via a craniofacial fellowship. Craniofacial surgery is also exercised by maxillofacial surgeons.

Hand surgery

Hand surgery is related with acute injuries and chronic diseases of the hand and wrist, modification of peripheral nerve problems (such as brachial plexus injuries or carpal tunnel syndrome) and congenital malformations of the upper extremities. Hand surgery is a crucial part of practice in plastic surgery, as well as microsurgery, which is essential to replant an amputated extremity. The hand surgery field is also exercised by orthopaedic surgeons and general surgeons. Scar tissue construction after surgery can be complicated on the elegant hand, causing casualty of dexterity and digit function, if serious enough. There have been prosecutions of surgery to women's hands to rectify perceived drawbacks to establish the accurate engagement ring photo.


Microsurgery is commonly related to the reconstruction of forgetting tissues by transporting a piece of tissue to the reconstruction location and reconnecting blood vessels. Outstanding subspecialty areas are breast reconstruction, head and neck reconstruction, hand surgery/replantation, and brachial plexus surgery.

Pediatric plastic surgery

Children often encounter medical issues very different from the knowledge of an adult patient. Many birth defects or syndromes existing at birth are nicely dealt with in childhood, and pediatric plastic surgeons hustle in treating these circumstances in children. Circumstances generally attended by pediatric plastic surgeons include craniofacial anomalies, Syndactyly (webbing of the fingers and toes), Polydactyly (excess fingers and toes at birth), cleft lip and palate, and congenital hand deformities.


Cosmetic Surgery vs Plastic surgery

If you’ve ever thought about cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery were the same, then you’re not solitary. A substantial number of plastic surgeons want to concentrate on their practise on cosmetic surgery, and as such, the terms are frequently consumed interchangeably. But this is not exactly correct. Cosmetic surgery vs plastic surgery are nearly related specialities, but they are not similar.

The American Board of Plastic Surgery, Inc. was governed as an associate of the American Board of Surgery in 1938. The American Board of Plastic Surgery, Inc. was assigned the significance of a main specialty board in 1941. It is the one authorizing body for Plastic and Reconstructive surgery recognised by the American Board of Medical Specialties.

American Board Plastic Surgery certification has the subsequent requirements

  • Graduation from an accredited medical school
  • Completion of either:

    at least three years of general surgery residency discipline or a complete residency in neurological surgery, orthopaedic surgery, otolaryngology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, or urology.

As well as:

Completion of the plastic surgery residency discipline of at least two years.

Passing comprehensive oral and written exams

Renewal of certification

Certificate issued 1995 and after Diplomates who received American Board of Plastic Surgery certification in 1995 or after surely be renewed by Maintenance of Certification (MOC) examination every 10 years.

Certificate issued previous to 1995 Diplomats who were Board Certified Before to 1995 is not required to renew by examination every 10 years. Board Certification certificates issued before 1995 have no demise date.

Cosmetic medical procedure is a willful or elective medical procedure that is performed on typical pieces of the body with the lone reason for improving an individual's appearance as well as eliminating indications of maturing. In 2014, almost 16 million corrective systems were acted in the United States alone. The quantity of restorative techniques acted in the United States has nearly multiplied since the beginning of the century. 92% of restorative techniques were performed on ladies in 2014, up from 88% in 2001. Nearly 12 million corrective strategies were acted in 2007, with the five most regular medical procedures being bosom enlargement, liposuction, bosom decrease, eyelid medical procedure, and abdominoplasty. The American Board of Plastic Surgery takes a gander at the insights for 34 diverse corrective systems. Nineteen of the strategies are careful, for example, rhinoplasty or facelift. The nonsurgical methods incorporate Botox and laser hair evacuation. In 2010, their overview uncovered that there were 9,336,814 absolute methods in the United States. Of those, 1,622,290 methods were careful. They likewise found that a vast larger part, 81%, of the systems were done on Caucasian individuals.

The American Society of cosmetic Surgery gauges that in excess of 333,000 restorative techniques were performed on patients 18 years old or more youthful in the US in 2005 contrasted with approx. 14,000 out of 1996. This is critical on the grounds that it urges more youthful individuals to proceed with these methods later in life. The expanded utilization of restorative systems crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U.S., with increments seen among African-Americans, Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans just as Caucasian Americans. Of 1191 UK paper articles, 89% utilized the term 'plastic medical procedure' with regards to restorative medical procedure. This is huge as it shows the recurrence wherein the western world depicts corrective surgery. In Asia, restorative medical procedure has gotten more well known, and nations, for example, China and India have become Asia's greatest corrective medical procedure markets. South Korea is likewise ascending in ubiquity because of their aptitude in facial bone medical procedures. The primary distribution by a group of South Korean specialists on facial bone shaping medical procedures was distributed representing different medical procedure strategies utilized for facial bone forming surgeries.

Plastic surgery is improving gradually, surging 115% from 2000 to 2015. "According to the annual plastic surgery procedural statistics, there were 15.9 million surgical and minimally-invasive cosmetic methods accomplished in the United States in 2015, a 2 percent improvement over 2014.

In 1949, 15,000 Americans undergo cosmetic surgery techniques. By 1969, this number rose to nearly half a million people.

The largely prominent aesthetic/cosmetic techniques include

  • Abdominoplasty ("tummy tuck"): reconstructing and firming of the abdomen
  • Blepharoplasty ("eyelid surgery"): reconstructing of upper/lower eyelids comprising Asian blepharoplasty
  • Phalloplasty ("penile surgery"): building (or reconstruction) of a penis or, sometimes, artificial conversion of the penis by surgery, frequently for cosmetic purposes
  • Mammoplasty: Breast augmentations ("breast implant" or "boob job"): enlargement of the breasts by norms of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel prosthetics, which was originally conducted for women with micromastia
  • Reduction mammoplasty ("breast reduction"): disposal of skin and glandular tissue, which is accomplished to lessen back and shoulder pain in women with gigantomastia and for men with gynecomastia
  • Mastopexy ("breast lift"): Lifting or reconstructing of breasts to make them limited saggy, often after weight loss (after a pregnancy, for example). It implicates removal of breast skin as opposed to glandular tissue
  • Buttock augmentation ("butt implant"): enhancement of the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting ("Brazilian butt lift") where fat is transported from other regions of the body
  • Cryolipolysis: This refers to a medical equipment utilized to destroy fat cells. Its belief relies on regulated cooling for non-invasive local reduction of fat deposits to reshape body contours.
  • Cryoneuromodulation: Treatment of superficial and subcutaneous tissue structures utilizing gaseous nitrous oxide, comprising temporary wrinkle reduction, temporary pain reduction, treatment of dermatologic conditions, and focal cryo-treatment of tissue
  • Calf Augmentation: done by silicone implants or fat transfer to add quantity to calf muscles
  • Labiaplasty: surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia
  • Lip augmentation: alter the manifestation of the lips by increasing their fullness with the help of surgical enlargement with lip implants or nonsurgical enhancement with injectable fillings
  • Cheiloplasty: surgical reshaping the lip
  • Rhinoplasty ("nose job"): reshaping of the nose occasionally used to rectify breathing impaired by structural deformities.
  • Otoplasty ("ear surgery"/"ear pinning"): reconstruction of the ear, most frequently done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
  • Rhytidectomy ("face lift"): removal of wrinkles and indications of aging from the face
  • Neck lift: tightening of lax tissues in the neck. This procedure is often combined with a facelift for lower face rejuvenation.
  • Browplasty ("brow lift" or "forehead lift"): upright eyebrows, smooths forehead skin
  • Midface lift ("cheek lift"): erecting of the cheeks
  • Genioplasty: enlargement of the chin with a person's bones or with the design of an implant, usually silicone, by suture of the soft tissue
  • Mentoplasty: surgery to the chin. This can implicate either enhancing or reducing the size of the chin. Enhancements are attained with the use of facial implants. Deduction of the chin complicated lessening the size of the chin bone.
  • Cheek augmentation ("cheek implant"): embeds to the cheek
  • Orthognathic Surgery: modifying the upper and lower jaw bones (through osteotomy) to rectified jaw alignment problems and rectified the teeth alignment
  • Fillers injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections, such as hyaluronic acid
  • Brachioplasty ("Arm lift"): lessening excess skin and fat between the underarm and the elbow
  • Laser Skin Rejuvenation or laser resurfacing: the reduction of chasm of facial pores and exfoliation of dead or damaged skin cells
  • Liposuction ("suction lipectomy"): disposal of fat residues by conventional suction technique or ultrasonic energy to aid fat disposal
  • Zygoma reduction plasty: lessening the facial width by conducting osteotomy and resecting portion of the zygomatic bone and arch
  • Jaw reduction: reduction of the mandible angle to smooth out an angular jaw and creating a slim jaw
  • Buccal Fat Extraction: extraction of the buccal pads
  • Body contouring: the disposal of this abundance skin and fat from several areas of the body, rebuilding the manifestation of skin elasticity of the remaining skin. The surgery is central in those who have suffered significant weight loss occurring in abundance sagging skin being current around regions of the body. The skin loses elasticity. once it has been spanned past ability and is unable to recoil back to its standard position against the body and furthermore with age.
  • Sclerotherapy: removing visible 'spider veins' (Telangiectasia), which occur on the texture of the skin.
  • Dermal fillers: Dermal fillers are vaccinated below the skin to lend a more fuller, young impression of a characteristic or category of the face. One type of dermal filler is Hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is commonly found throughout the human body. It plays a crucial role in striding Nutrients to the cells of the skin from the blood. It is also generally used in patients undergoing Arthritis as it behaves like a cushion to the bones which have consumed the articular cartilage casing. Development within this field has occurred over time with artificial forms of hyaluronic acid is being established, taking advantage of roles in other forms of cosmetic surgery such as facial augmentation.
  • Micropigmentation: is the innovation of permanent makeup using biological pigments to places such as the eyes to establish the consequence of eye shadow, lips establishing lipstick and cheek bones to create a blush like look. The pigment is inserted beneath the skin utilizing a machine which injects a small needle at a very fast rate holding up pigment into the skin, establishing a lasting colouration of the desired area.
The greatly outstanding surgeries are Botox, liposuction, eyelid surgery, breast implants, nose jobs, and facelifts.


What is the distinction between cosmetic vs plastic surgery?

Cosmetic surgery is an extraordinary domain of medicine concentrated on strengthening appearance through surgical and medical techniques. Cosmetic surgery can be performed on all areas of the head, neck and body. Because dealing with areas behave properly but lack aesthetic appeal, cosmetic surgery is discretionary.

Plastic surgery is characterized as a surgical speciality devoted to the reconstruction of facial and body defects due to birth disorders, trauma, burns, and disease. Plastic surgery is intended to correct dysfunctional areas of the body and is reconstructive.

For what reason is corrective medical procedure regularly compared with plastic medical procedure on the off chance that they are two separate strengths?

The main thing to recollect is that the terms 'plastic medical procedure' and 'restorative medical procedure' are not exchangeable. Disarray about the terms has prompted public misinterpretations about the two strengths. Corrective medical procedure is the "medical procedure of appearance." It is elective and spotlights on the style of excellence.

How does the training vary between a plastic specialist and a restorative specialist?

Since the methods and results of each are very extraordinary, the preparation of corrective specialists and plastic specialists is additionally totally different.

As there are no residency programs explicitly centered around restorative medical procedure, doctors seeking after corrective medical procedure have foundations that incorporate clinical school, a residency and additionally association program, ideally in a careful forte, as a rule followed by achieving board confirmation in that strength, and post-residency preparing explicitly in restorative medical procedure. This should be possible through a corrective medical procedure partnership program, just as through workshops, classes and talks. Doctors with huge involvement with corrective medical procedure become affirmed by the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery (ABCS), which has set up an exacting arrangement of models to guarantee insight and capability explicitly in restorative medical procedure.

Plastic specialists follow a comparable way the same number of restorative specialists. Nonetheless, in the wake of completing clinical school they complete a residency and additionally partnership in plastic medical procedure, and afterward may get ensured by the American Board of Plastic Surgery. Now, a plastic specialists extra preparing in corrective medical procedure is discretionary. In the event that they decide, they may find a way to acquire insight in restorative medical procedure through a cooperation preparing program, workshops, courses and talks, and afterward become confirmed by the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery in the wake of having finished the vital necessities.

Board affirmation is critical in deciding a specialist's capabilities. Each of the previously mentioned guaranteeing sheets has altogether different necessities and measures a doctor's schooling and involvement with various fields. It is significant that people in general just as medical services experts comprehend these distinctions so patients can settle on educated choices while picking a specialist for a particular system, regardless of whether it is a corrective or plastic specialist. Instruction and patient wellbeing are at the very center of the American Board of Cosmetic Surgery has main goal to propel the claim to fame of corrective medical procedure and quality patient consideration.